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Nipah Virus


What is Nipah virus infection?


*     A newly emerging viral infection

*     The virus normally resides in fruit bats but can spread to animals (esp. pigs) and human beings

*    It is highly contagious virus which can affect humans with severe disease and risk of death

How does it spread to humans*


*     Canspread with direct contact of infected animals (bats, pigs) or their secretions like saliva, urine, nasal secretions, meat etc.

*     By eating contaminated food products (like rotten vegetables, fruits bitten by bats, raw fruit juices etc.)

*     Human-to-human touch transmission through close contact with infected patients or their secretions/excretions

*     Risk of spread is high to family members and caregivers of infected person.

What are its clinical features in humans?


*     Maybe asymptomatic or symptoms may appear within 4 days to 2 weeks (incubation period,max. 45 days)

*     Initial flu symptoms like fever, headache, body aches, vomiting and sore throat.

*     It may complicate to the person having pneumonia and severe respiratory problems (acute respiratory syndrome)

*     Can get worse with brain involvement causing dizziness, drowsiness, altered consciousness and other neurological features (acute encephalitis), which may get worse further leading to fits and coma within 24 to 48 hours

*     Risk of high death rate (case fatality rate: 40% to 75%)

*     It?s possible that may be some survivors recover fully or may some have long-term neurological complications

What should I do if I suppose this infection or have these symptoms?


*     Avoid close contact with others (keep at least an arm*s distance)

*     Immediately seek help from your doctor and follow the recommendation

What is its treatment?


*     No vaccine available so far

*     No specific treatment of this infection

*     Treatment primarily comprises general supportive care and medical care to manage severe cases

What should I do for the prevention and protection from the Virus?


*     Follow universal precautions like hand washing and general hygiene

*     Avoid unnecessary visit a high-risk area (like a recently-declared out break area). Keep a watch on your health if you've got travelled to such a neighborhood

*    Avoid direct or close contact just in case of flu-like symptoms either in you or in others around you or at your workplace

*     In case you've got flu-like symptoms or suspect Nipah viral infection, seek your doctor?s help immediately and follow the doctor?s advice

*     Spread awareness (but not panic) among your relations, friends and colleagues about Nipah viral infection and measures of its prevention and control

*    Avoid direct contact with bats, pigs and other animals and also stay away with their secretions/tissues. Avoid unnecessary visits to pig farms, animal slaughterhouses etc.

*     Consume fruits after thorough washing and peeling. Avoid such fruits that appear to possess been bitten or partially eaten by bats/birds


Report any suspected case of Nipah viral infection to the concerned health authorities.